The god thanatos in greek mythology

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Thanatos & the body toàn thân of Sarpedon, Athenian red-figure lekythos C5th B.C., British Museum

THANATOS was the god or personified spirit (daimon) of non-violent death. His touch was gentle, likened khổng lồ that of his twin brother Hypnos (Sleep).Violent death was the domain of Thanatos" blood-craving sisters, the Keres, spirits of slaughter and disease.

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Thanatos plays a prominent role in two myths. Once when he was sent lớn fetch Alkestis (Alcestis) lớn the underworld, he was driven off by Herakles in a fight. Another time he was captured by the criminal Sisyphos (Sisyphus) who trapped hlặng in a sachồng so as lớn avoid death.

In Greek vase painting Thanatos was depicted as a winged, bearded older man, or more rarely as a beardless youth. He often appears in a scene from the Iliad, opposite his brother Hypnos (Sleep) carrying off the body toàn thân of Sarpedon. In Roman sculptural reliefs he was portrayed as a youth holding a down-turned torch và wreath or butterfly which symbolised the soul of the dead.

FAMILY OF THANATOS

PARENTS

<1.1> NYX (no father) (Hesiod Theogony 212, Homer Iliad 14.250, Pausanias 5.18.1, Seneca Hercules Fur. 1068)<1.2> EREBOS và NYX (Hyginus Preface, Cicero De Natura Deorum 3.17)

ENCYCLOPEDIA

THA′NATOS (Thanatos), Latin Mors, a personification of Death. In the Homeric poems Death does not appear as a distinct divinity, though he is described as the brother of Sleep, together with whom he carries the toàn thân of Sarpedon from the field of battle khổng lồ the country of the Lycians. (Il. xvi. 672, xiv. 231.) In Hesiod (Theog. 211, &c. 756) he is a son of Night và a brother of Ker and Sleep, & Death & Sleep reside in the lower world. (Comp. Virg. Aen. vi. 277.) In the Alcestis of Euripides, where Death cones upon the stage, he appears as an austere priest of Hades in a dark robe & with the sacrificial sword, with which he cuts off a loông chồng of a dying person, & devotes it to the lower world. (Alcest. 75, 843, 845.) On the whole, later poets describe Death as a sad or terrific being (Horat. Carm. i. 4. 13, Sat. ii. 1. 58), but the best artists of the Greeks, avoiding any thing that might be displeasing, abandoned the ideas suggested to lớn them by the poets. và represented Death under a more pleasing aspect. On the chest of Cypselus, Night was represented with two boys, one black và the other trắng (Paus. v. 18. § 1), & at Sparta there were statues of both Death and Sleep. (iii. 18. § 1.) Both were usually represented as slumbering youths, or as genii with torches turned upside down. There are traces of sacrifices having been offered to Death (Serv. ad Aen. xi. 197; Stat. Theb.

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iv. 528; Lucan, vi. 600; Philostr. Vit. Apoll. v. 4), but no temples are mentioned anywhere.

PAEAN (Paian, Paiêôn or Paiôn), that is, "the healing." The name was used in the more general sense of deliverer from any evil or calamity (Pind. Pyth. iv. 480), and was thus applied to lớn Apollo & Thanatos, or Death, who are conceived as delivering men from the pains & sorrows of life. (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 154 ; Paus. i. 34. § 2 ; Eurip. Hippol. 1373.) With regard lớn Apollo and Thanatos however, the name may at the same time contain an allusion to lớn paiein, to strike, since both are also regarded as destroyers. (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 137.)

Source: Dictionary of Greek & Roman Biography & Mythology.

CLASSICAL LITERATURE QUOTES

PARENTAGE OF THANATOS

Hesiod, Theogony 21 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :"And Nyx (Night) bare hateful Moros (Doom) and blachồng Ker (Violent Death) & Thanatos (Death), & she bare Hypnos (Sleep) & the tribe of Oneiroi (Dreams). And again the goddess murky Nyx, though she lay with none, bare Momos (Blame) và painful Oizys (Misery), & the Hesperides . . . Also she bare the Moirai (Moirae, Fates) và the ruthless avenging Keres (Death-Fates) . . . Also deadly Nyx bare Nemesis (Envy) khổng lồ afflict mortal men, & after her, Apate (Deceit) and Philotes (Friendship) & hateful Geras (Old Age) and hard-hearted Eris (Strife)."

Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :"From Nox (Night) và Erebus : Fatum (Fate), Senectus (Old Age), Mors (Death) , Letum (Dissolution) , Continentia (Moderation), Somnus (Sleep), Somnia (Dreams), Amor (Love)--that is Lysimeles, Epiphron (Prudence), Porphyrion, Epaphus, Discordia (Discord), Miseria (Misery), Petulantia (Wantonness), Nemesis (Envy), Euphrosyne (Good Cheer), Amicitia (Friendship), Misericordia (Compassion), Styx (Hatred); the three Parcae (Fates), namely Clotho, Lachesis & Atropos; the Hesperides."

Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3. 17 (trans. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.) :"Their brothers và sisters, whom the ancient genealogists name Amor (Love), Dolus (Guile), Metus (Fear), Labor (Toil), Invidentia (Envy), Fatum (Fate), Senectus (Old Age), Mors (Death) , Tenebrae (Darkness) , Miseria (Misery), Querella (Complaint), Gratia (Favour), Fraus (Fraud), Pertinacia (Obstinacy), the Parcae (Fates), the Hesperides, the Somnia (Dreams): all of these are fabled khổng lồ be the children of Erebus (Darkness) và Nox (Night)."

THANATOS & THE BODY OF SARPEDON

On the orders of Zeus, Hypnos & Thanatos carried off the toàn thân of Sarpedon from the battlefield lớn the country of the Lykians (Lycians).

Homer, Iliad 16. 453 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :" ‘But after the soul and the years of his life have sầu left hyên , then skết thúc Thanatos (Death) lớn carry hyên ổn away, and Hypnos (Sleep), who is painless, until they come with him to the countryside of broad Lykia (Lycia) where his brothers và countrymen shall give hlặng due burial with tomb và gravestone.’"

Homer, Iliad 16. 681 ff : "Then gave hyên ổn inkhổng lồ the charge of swift messengers khổng lồ carry him, of Hypnos (Sleep) and Thanatos (Death), who are twin brothers, & these two presently laid hyên ổn down within the rich countryside of broad Lykia (Lycia)."

Bacchylides, Fragment 20e (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :"But the highest god , mighty with his thunderbolt, sent Hypnos (Sleep) và Thanatos (Death) from snowy Olympos to the fearless fighter Sarpedon ."

CAPTURE OF THANATOS BY SISYPHUS

Alcaeus, Fragment 38a (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric I) (Greek lyric C6th B.C.) :"King Sisyphos (Sisyphus), son of Aiolos (Aeolus), wisest of men, supposed that he was master of Thanatos (Death); but despite his cunning he crossed eddying Akheron (Acheron) twice at at fate"s comm&."

Theognis, Fragment 1.703 (trans. Gerber, Vol. Greek Elegiac) (Greek elegy C6th B.C.) : "Sisyphos, son of Aiolos (Aeolus), who by his wits came up even from Aides (Haides) . . . No one else has ever contrived this, once Thanatos" (Death"s) dark cloud has enveloped hyên và he has come khổng lồ the shadowy place of the dead."

Aeschylus, Sisyphus the Runaway (lost play) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :Weir Smyth (L.C.L.) quotes from Pherecydes, a C5th B.C. mythographer, in his discussion of the plot of this lost play: "The drama was satyric; its theme, the escape from Haides of the crafty Korinthian king. According khổng lồ the fabulous story told by Pherekydes (Frag. 78 in Müller, Fragmenta Historicum Graecorum) Sisyphos made known khổng lồ Asopos that it was Zeus who had carried off his daughter Aigina; in punishment for which offence the god sent Thanatos (Death) against the babbler; but Sisyphos bound Thanatos (Death) fast, so that men ceased to lớn die, until Ares came to the rescue, released Thanatos, & gave Sisyphos inkhổng lồ his power."

THANATOS WRESTLED BY HERACLES

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Thanatos, Alcestis and Heracles, Athenian red-figure kantharos C5th B.C., British Museum

Euripides, Alcestis 19 ff (trans. Vellacott) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :"Apollon : She is in the house now, gathered in his arms and held at the breaking point of life, because Moira (Fate) marks this for her day of death and taking leave sầu of life. The stain of death in the house must not be on me. I step therefore from these chambers dearest to lớn my love. And here is Thanatos (Death) himself, I see him coming, Thanatos who dedicates the dying, who will lead her down lớn the house of Hades. He has come on time. He has been watching for this day on which her death falls due.Thanatos : Ah! You at this house, Phoibos (Phoebus)? Why vì chưng you haunt this place. It is unfair khổng lồ take for your own và spoil the death-spirits" <eneroi, ‘of those below’> privileges. Was it not enough, then, that you blocked the death of Admetos, & overthrew the Moirai (Moirae, Fates) by a shabby wrestler"s trick? And now your bow hand is armed to lớn guard her too, Alkestis, Pelias" daughter, though she promised her life for her husband"s.Apollon : Never fear. I have sầu nothing but justice and fair words for you.Thanatos : If you mean fairly, what are you doing with a bow?Apollon : it is my custom to carry it with me all the time.Thanatos : It is your custom to help this house more than you ought.Apollon : But he is my friend, và his misfortunes trouble me.Thanatos : You mean khổng lồ take her body, too, away from me?Apollon : I never took his body toàn thân away from you by force.Thanatos : How is it, then, that he is above sầu ground, not below?Apollon : He gave sầu his wife instead, & you have come for her now.Thanatos : I have sầu. And I shall take her down where the dead are.Apollon : Take her và go. I am not sure you will listen to me.Thanatos : Tell me to kill whom I must kill. Such are my orders.Apollon : No, only khổng lồ put death off. They must die in the end.Thanatos : I understand what you would say & what you want.Apollon : Is there any way, then, for Alkestis khổng lồ grow old?Thanatos : There is not. I insist on enjoying my rights too.Apollon : You would not take more than one life in any case.Thanatos : My privilege means more khổng lồ me when they die young.Apollon : If she dies old, she will have sầu a lavish burial.Thanatos : What you propose, Phoibos, is to lớn favour the rich.Apollon : What is this? Have you unrecognised talents for debate?Thanatos : Those who could afford to buy a late death would buy it then.Apollon : I see. Are you determined not to lớn vì chưng this for me?Thanatos : I will not bởi it. And you know my character.Apollon : I know it: hateful to lớn mankind, loathed by the gods.Thanatos : You cannot always have your way where you should not.Apollon : For all your brute ferođô thị you shall be stopped. The man lớn vày it is on the way lớn Pheres" house now, on an errvà from Eurystheus, sent lớn steal a team of horses from the wintry lands of Thrake (Thrace). He shall be entertained here in Admetos" house and he shall take the woman away from you by force, nor will you have our gratitude, but you shall still be forced lớn vì chưng it, and to lớn have my hate beside.Thanatos : Much talk. Talking will win you nothing. All the same, the woman goes with me to lớn Haides" house. I go lớn take her now, & dedicate her with my sword, for all whose hair is cut in consecration by this blade"s edge are devoted to lớn the gods below.Thanatos enters the house. Apollon leaves."

Euripides Alcestis 140 ff : "Chorus : We would like khổng lồ know whether the queen is dead or if she is alive.Maid : I could tell you that she is still alive sầu or that she is dead.Chorus : How could a person both be dead & live sầu & see?Maid : It has felled her, & the life is breaking from her now . . . Chorus : There is no hope left she will live?Maid : None. This is the day of destiny. It is too strong."

Euripides Alcestis 201 ff : "Maid : Oh yes, he is crying. He holds his wife cthất bại in his arms, imploring her not to lớn forsake hyên ổn. What he wants is impossible. She is dying. The sickness fades her now. She has gone slaông chồng, just an inert weight on the arm."

Euripides, Alcestis 235 ff : "The bravest of wives fading in sickness và doomed to lớn Haides Khthonios (Chthonius, of the world below)."

Euripides, Alcestis 259 ff : "Alkestis : Somebody has me, somebody toàn thân takes me away, vày you see, don"t you see, to the courts of dead men. He frowns from under dark brows. He has wings. It is Haides (Death)."

Eurpides, Alcestis 266 ff : "Alkestis : I have sầu no strength to lớn stvà. Aides (Death) is cthua to lớn me. The darkness creeps over my eyes."

Euripides, Alcestis 839 ff : "Herakles : I must save sầu this woman who has died so lately, bring Alkestis bachồng to live in this house và pay Admetos all the kindness that I owe. I must go there và watch for Thanatos (Death) of the blaông chồng robes (melampeplos), master of dead men (anax nekrôn), & I think I shall find hlặng drinking the blood of slaughtered beasts beside the grave. Then, if I can break suddenly from my hiding place, catch hyên ổn, & hold him in the circle of these arms, there is no way he will be able khổng lồ break my hold on his bruised ribs, until he gives the woman up to me. But if I miss my quarry, if he does not come lớn the clotted offering, I must go down, I must ask Kore (Core, the Maiden) and the Master (Anax) in the sunless homes of those below (domos anêlios)."

Euripides, Alcestis 870 ff : "Admetos : Such was the one Thanatos (Death) has taken from me, & given to lớn Haides."

Euripides, Alcestis 1140 ff : "Admetos : How did you bring her baông chồng, from down there khổng lồ the light?Herakles : I fought a certain deity who had charge of her.Admetos : Where do you say you fought this match with Thanatos (Death)?Herakles : Beside the tomb itself. I sprang and caught him in my hands.Admestos : But why is my wife standing here, and does not speak?Herakles : You are not allowed to hear her speak lớn you until her obligations khổng lồ the gods who live sầu below are washed away. Until the third morning comes."

THANATOS GOD OF DEATH POETIC MISCELLANY

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Thanatos, Hypnos, Hermes and the toàn thân of Sarpedon, Athenian red-figure calyx krater C6th B.C., Metropolitung Museum of Art

Homer, Odyssey 11. 397 ff (trans. Shewring) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :"I wept to see hyên , my heart went out ot hyên ổn, và I uttered these words in rapid fligh t: ‘Renowned Atreides, Agamemnon, the lord of men, what doom (ker) of distressful death (thanatos) overmastered you?’"

Hesiod, Theogony 758 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :"Nyx (Night) carries Hypnos in her arms, và he is Thanatos" (Death"s) brother . . . And there the children of gloomy Nyx have their houses. These are Hypnos (Sleep) & Thanatos (Death), dread divinities. Never upon them does Helquả táo, the shining sun, cast the light of his eye-beams, neither when he goes up the sky nor comes down from it. One of these , across the earth & the wide sea-ridges, goes his way quietly bachồng và forth, & is kind lớn mortals, but the heart of the other one is iron, & brazen feelings without pity are inside his breast."

Terpander Frag 10 (from Palatine Anthology : Tryphon) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric I) (Greek lyric C7th B.C.) :"He died when he was struông xã on the lips by one single fig. Alas, Thanatos (Death) is never at a loss for an occasion."

Bacchylides, Fragment 13 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :"When the dark-blue cloud of Thanatos (Death) covers them."

The Anacreontea, Fragment 36 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (Greek lyric C5th or C4th B.C.) :"If Ploutos (Plutus, Wealth) offered life to mortals for gold, then I would persevere in hoarding it, so that if Thanatos (Death) came he could take some and pass on."

Aeschylus, Fragment 82 Niobe (from Stobaeus, Anthology 4. 51. 1) (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :"For, alone of gods, Thanatos (Death) loves not gifts; no, not by sacrifice, nor by libation, canst thou aught avail with him; he hath no altar nor hath he hymn of praise; from him, alone of gods, Peitho (Persuasion) stands aloof."

Aeschylus, Fragment 141 Philoctetes (from Stobaeus, Anthology 4. 52. 32) :" ‘O Death (thanatos), the healer (paian), reject me not, but come! For thou alone art the mediciner of ills incurable, và no pain layeth hold on the dead.’"

Aristophanes, Birds 1360 ff (trans. O"Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to lớn 4th B.C.) :"Aiskhylos (Aeschylus) : Thanatos (Death) loves not gifts, alone amongst the gods ."

Aesop, Fables 484 (from Syntipas 2) (trans. Gibbs) (Greek fable C6th B.C.) : "A poor man was carrying a load of wood on his shoulders. After a while he was feeling faint, so he sat down by the side of the road. Putting aside his burden, he bitterly called out to Thanatos (Death), summoning Thanatos with the words ‘O him!’ Thanatos (Death) immediately showed up và said lớn the man, ‘Why have you summoned me?’ The man said, ‘Oh, just to have you help me pick this burden up off the ground!’"

Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1. 690 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :"As for myself , though Thanatos (Death) still shudders at the sight of me, I have sầu the feeling that the coming year will see me in the grave."

Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3. 1127 ff : "Nothing shall part us in our love sầu till Thanatos (Death) at his appointed hour removed us from the light of day."

Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 1. 306 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) :"All through the tangle of that desperate fray stalked slaughter và doom. The incarnate Kydoimos (Cydoimus, Onset-shout) raved through the rolling battle; at her side paced Thanatos (Death) the ruthless, & the fearful Keres (Deaths), beside them strode."

Orphic Hymn 87 lớn Thanatus (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. khổng lồ 2nd A.D.) :"To Thanatos (Death), Fumigation from Manmãng cầu. Hear me, O Thanatos (Death), whose empire unconfined extends to lớn mortal tribes of every kind. On thee the portion of our time depends, whose absence lengthens life, whose presence ends. Thy sleep perpetual bursts the vivid bolds by which the soul attracting the body holds: comtháng to all, of every sex and age, for nought escapes thy all-destructive rage. Not youth itself thy clemency can gain, vigorous and strong, by thee untimely slain. In thee the over of nature"s works is known, in thee all judgment is absolved alone. No suppliant arts thy dreadful rage control, no vows revoke the purpose of thy soul. O blessed power, regard my ardent prayer, và human life lớn age abundant spare."

Aelian, Historical Miscellany 2. 34 (trans. Wilson) (Greek rhetorician C2nd to lớn 3rd A.D.) :"At the kết thúc of his life, having reached a very great age, Gorgias of Leontini was overcome by weakness and lay gradually slipping away into sleep. When one of his friends came to lớn see him and asked how he was, Gorgias said : ‘Hypnos (Sleep) is now beginning to lớn hvà me over to lớn his brother .’"

Colluthus, Rape of Helen 365 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poetry C5th lớn C6th A.D.) :" She wailed, và leaning baông chồng her nechồng breathed Hypnos (Sleep) who walks with Thanatos (Death); for verily it was ordained that both should have sầu all things in comtháng and pursue the works of the elder brother: hence women, weighed down with sorrowing eyes, oft-times, while they weep, fall asleep."

MORS-LETUM ROMAN GOD OF DEATH

The Romans usually name Thanatos Mors. Letum is less common & often refers khổng lồ the Keres instead.

Virgil, Aeneid 6. 268 ff (trans. Fairclough) (Roman epic C1st B.C.) :" On they went dimly, beneath the lonely night amid the gloom, through the empty halls of Dis & his phantom realm . . . Just before the entrance, even within the very jaws of Orcus , Luctus (Grief) & avenging Curae (Cares) have set their bed; there pale Morbi (Diseases) dwell, sad Senectus (Old Age) , and Metus (Fear) , temptress lớn sin, and loathly Egestas (Want) , shapes terrible lớn view; and Letum (Death) và Labor (Distress) ; next, Letum"s (Death"s) own brother Sopor (Sleep) , và Gaudia (the soul"s Guilty Joys), and, on the threshold opposite, the death-dealing Bellum (War) , & the Eumenides" iron cells, & maddening Discordia (Strife) , her snaky locks entwined with bloody ribbons. In the midst an elm, shadowy & vast, spreads her boughs and aged arms, the whome which, men say, false Somnia (Dreams) hold, clinging under every leaf."

Virgil, Georgics 2. 492 (trans. Fairclough) (Roman bucolic C1st B.C.) :"Fate"s implacable decree, và the howl of insatiable Acherontis ."

Seneca, Hercules Furens 554 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) :"Sluggish stands the mere with black abyss, và, when Mors (Death) , pale-visaged with greedy teeth, has brought countless tribes to the world of shades, one ferryman transports those many peoples."

Seneca, Hercules Furens 1063 ff : "O Somnus (Sleep) , vanquisher of woes, rest of the soul, the better part of human life, thou winged son of thy mother Astraea , sluggish brother of cruel Mors (Death) ."

Seneca, Medea 740 ff : "Funereal gods, murky Chaos & shadowy Dis" dark dwelling-place, the abysses of dismal Mors (Death) , girt by the banks of Tartarus."

Seneca, Oedipus 124 ff : "We are perishing, are falling ‘neath the fierce onslaught of fate . Each hour a new train moves on to Mors (Death) ; the long array of a mournful band hastes lớn the shades; the gloomy procession jams, & for the throng that seeks burial the seven gates spread not wide enough. The grievous wrachồng of carnage halts and funeral crowds funeral in unbroken line."

Seneca, Oedipus 160 ff : " They have sầu burst the bars of abysmal Erebus, the throng of sisters with Tartarean torch , và Phlegenhỏ, changing his own course, has mingled Styx with our Sidonian streams . Dark Mors (Death) , death opens wide his greedy, gaping jaws & unfolds all his wings, and the boatman who plies the troubled stream with roomy skiff . . . worn out with ferrying the fresh throng o"er."

Seneca, Oedipus 647 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) :" ‘Wherefore speedily expel ye the king from out your borders, in exile drive him to any place so-ever with his baleful step. Let hlặng leave the land; then, blooming with flowers of spring, shall it renew its verdure, the life-giving air shall give pure breath again, and their beauty shall come baông xã to lớn the woods; Letum (Ruin) và Lues (Pestilence) , Mors (Death) , Labor (Hardship) , Tabes (Corruption) and Dolor (Distress) , fit company for hlặng, shall all depart together. And he himself with hastening steps shall long lớn flee our kingdom, but I will phối wearisome delays before his feet and hold hlặng back. He shall creep, uncertain of his way, with the staff of age groping out his gloomy way. Rob ye hlặng of the earth; his father will take from him the sky.’"

Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 8. 67 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :"All powerful Somnus (Sleep) . . . now come to lớn my aid with mightier influence, most like thy brother Letum (Death) ."

Statius, Thebaid 1. 632 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :"Pleasant lives droop and fail, Mors (Death) with his sword cuts through the Sister"s threads, & hurries the stricken city to lớn the shades."

Statius, Thebaid 4. 410 ff : "Awful realm of insatiable Mors (Death) ."

Statius, Thebaid 4. 520 ff : "Abodes of Tartarus and awful realm of insatiable Mors (Death) , & thou, most cruel of the brothers , lớn whom the Shades are given to serve thee."

Statius, Thebaid 4. 527 ff : "The void is flung open, the spacious shadows of the hidden region are rent, the groves and blachồng rivers lie clear to view, và Acheron belches forth noisome mud. Smoky Phlegekhông lớn rolls down his streams of murky flame, and Styx interfluent sets a barrier khổng lồ the sundered ghosts. Himself I behold, all pale upon the throne, with Stygian Eumenides ministering khổng lồ his fell deeds about hlặng, & the remorseless chambers và gloomy couch of Stygian Juno . Blaông xã Mors (Death) sits upon an eminence, & numbers the silent peoples for their lord; yet the greater part of the troop remains. The Gortynian judge shakes them in his inexorable urn, demanding the truth with threats, & constrains them khổng lồ speak out their whole lives" story và at last confess their extorted gains."

Statius, Thebaid 5. 155 ff : "When Somnus (Sleep) , shrouded in the gloom of his brother Letum (Death) & dripping with Stygian dew, enfolds the doomed thành phố , and from his relentless horn pours heavy drowse, và marks out the men. Wives & daughters are awake for murder . . . they fall to their horrid work ."

Statius, Thebaid 7. 64 ff : "Fit sentinels hold watch there : from the outer gate wild Impetus (Passion) leaps, và blind Nefas (Mishief) and Irae (Angers) flushing red & pallid Metus (Fear) , & Insidia (Treachery) lurks with hidden sword, và Discordia (Discord) holding a two-edged blade. Minis (Threatenings) innumerable make clamour in the court, sullen Virtus (Valour) stands in the midst, và Furor (Rage) exultant và armed Mors (Death) with blood-stained visage are seated there; no blood but that of wars is on the altars, no fire but snatched from burning cities."

Statius, Thebaid 8. 376 ff : "Mors (Death) let loose from Stygian darkness exults in the air of heaven, và hovers in flight over the field of battle, và with black jaws gaping wide invites the heroes; nought vulgar doth he choose, but with bloody nail marks as victims those most worthy of life, in the prime of years or valour; and now all the Sister"s strands are broken for the wretched men, và the Furiae (Furies) have snatched the threads from the Parcae (Fates) ."

Statius, Thebaid 10. 90 ff : "Within , glowing Mulciber had carved a thous& likenesses of the god : . . . in the secret places of the palace he lies with Mors (Death) also, but that dread image is seen by none."

Statius, Silvae 2. 1. 183 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman poetry C1st A.D.) :"Lay aside thy fears , và be no more in dread of threatening Letum (Death) ."

Statius, Silvae 3. 1. 171 ff : "I will hold fast the threads of the Parcae and stretch out the wool upon their distaffs--I can subdue remorseless Mors (Death) ."

Statius, Silvae 5. 3. 260 ff : " The gate of death was not dark for thee: gentle was thy passing . . . a tranquil unconsciousness and death (mors) that counterfeited slumber mix free thy soul, and bore thee lớn Tartarus under the false semblance of repose."

CULT & IMAGES OF THANATOS

Sacrifices were sometimes offered lớn Thanatos but he possessed no temples.

Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 18. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :"Near the statues of Pausanias is an image of Aphrodite Ambologera (Postponer of Old Age), which was mix up in accordance with an oracle; there are also images of Hypnos (Sleep) and of Thanatos (Death). They think them brothers, in accordance with the verses in the Iliad."

Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 18. 1 :" There is a figures of a woman holding on her right arm a White child asleep, and on her left she has a blachồng child lượt thích one who is asleep. Each has his feet turned different ways. The inscriptions declare, as one could infer without inscriptions, that the figures are Thanatos (Death) & Hypnos (Sleep), with Nyx (Night) the nurse of both."

Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 5. 4 (trans. Conybeare) (Greek biography C1st to C2nd A.D.) :"The đô thị of Gadeira is situated at the extreme over of Europe, & its inhabitants are excessively given to lớn religion; so much so that they have phối up an altar khổng lồ Geras (Old Age), & unlượt thích any other race they sing hymns in honour of Thanatos (Death)."